Transformerless Power Supply Using MJE13005

The following article presents a very simple low current mains operated transformerless power circuit using an inexpensive MJE13005 transistor and few other passive electronic components.

As can be witnessed in the given circuit diagram, the design is extremely straightforward.

How it Works


Transistor T1, which is a high voltage NPN transistor MJE13005 forms the main active component in the circuit.

Rest of the components are positioned just for supporting the conduction of T1 and for the required stabilization.

The circuit can be understood with the following points:

Mains input is fed across D2 and the negative line of the circuit.

D2 rectifies the mains AC, while C1 filters to some reasonable levels.

R1 drops the current to tolerable limits in order to provide the required base bias for T1.

C2 provides further filtration to the voltage generated after R1.

D1 clamps the base voltage at the base of T1 to 24V, such that the maximum output voltage can never exceed this limit.

A mirror voltage which is always equal to the zener value is generated at the output, however the presence of R2 enables the response to become variable.

The adjustments made through R2 effectively varies the zener voltage right from zero to the maximum value, that is up to 24V.

Thus the obtained output becomes variable from zero to 24V.

However since the voltage is acquired across the emitter/ ground of the transistor, the current gets restricted to very modest levels, at 25mA to be precise.

The zener voltage though may be increased to any desired limits.

WARNING: THE WHOLE CIRCUIT IS NOT ISOLATED FROM MAINS AC, THEREFORE IS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TO TOUCH WHILE IT'S UNCOVERED, AND POWERED CONDITION


Parts List


R1 = 100k
R2 = 10K POT
C1 = 4.7uF/300V
C2 = 10uF/100v
C3,C4 = 100uF/30V
D1 = 24V, 1WATT, ZENER DIODE
D2 = 1N4007
T1 = MJE13005

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Comments

SHIV-FOUNTAIN said…
can you please upload high power led driver circuit for 400w led.
Swagatam said…
you can use the following circuit:

https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/make-hundred-watt-led-floodlight.html

just replace the components by calculating them with the given formula.

You will need an external smps to drive the above circuit
Swagatam said…
Dear Aruna,

According to me there's no possibility of a surge in this circuit.
Swagatam said…
sorry 1 amp won't be possible.
joshua richard said…
hi
can you help me 5v-12v transformer-less power supply circuit
Swagatam said…
hi, what's your current requirement? please specify the current requirement.
joshua richard said…
about 500-1A cause i will use it to drive a TDA 2822M and charge two smartphones
Swagatam said…
For charging batteries you will have to employ an smps circuit, other forms won't be safe as these may not be isolated from mains AC and also not capable of producing higher current outputs.
cheenu ditya said…
What if i inverse the polarity of capacitors in this ckt ? They will explode right sir??
Avik Paul said…
sir,
Do you have any circuit which provide 12v 100ma current.....
Swagatam said…
Avik, you can use the above circuit and add an overboard transistor across the existing mje13005 for boosting current to the required levels.
I'll try to update it soon here.
Swagatam said…
T1 is the main component which does the required voltage dropping.
Bharani Daran said…
Dear Sir,

The above circuit use in 23v/300ma Led light(7watts)

Thanks & Regards

S.Bharanidaran
Swagatam said…
Dear Bharani,
No, it's not suitable for high current applications.
Bharani Daran said…
Dear Sir,

Do you have any circuits high current application above my spec

Thanks & Regards

S.Bharanidaran
Swagatam said…
Dear Bharani,

According to me an SMPS would be the correct option choice for driving a high watt LED.

you can easily procure a readymade 24/1amp smps unit ad power your LED through

it....smps amp is not crucial as long as the voltage does not exceed above the led specs.
Vikram Sha said…
hi sir im a electronic hobbiest
can i use this circuit to power 100 led lights
Swagatam said…
Hi Vikram, use the following circuit, the above will not work:

https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/03/how-to-make-simplest-1-watt-led-driver.html

put all the LEDs in series and join it with the output of this circuit
Manoj kumar said…
Bro can I use this pcb with smd led? If yes then how much number of minimum qnd maximum led I cn use..,
Swagatam said…
Bro I won't recommended this circuit for SMD because SMDs are costly and we require foolproof design, so better go for a 12V SMPS adapter available readymade.
Swagatam said…
please translate in english
Swagatam said…
try a 400V capacitor for C1, or simply don't use anything, eliminate C1 and first try the circuit without it.
Which diode is wrong???
Is it the 24V zener or the general purpose 1N4007 ???
Swagatam said…
It's D1, I'll correct it in the article soon
frencho said…
Hello,
One question regarding your schematic : would it work with only the phase 220VAC line and no neutral.
I'm working on a power supply for a small radio module to controle light switch. behind the light switch I don't have the neutral line.
Swagatam said…
hello, you can use an "earthing" line as the neutral, for example it could be your bathroom water tap line...
rich13 said…
Hello,
I'm sure you know this is very late asking a question regarding your design. Hopefully you will read this.
I see your parts list, but can you give values for the wattage for.... R1. Will this need adjustment in case of modifying the output, I've, if output is required at 12v, will RI wattage be different?

Many thanks

Rich

Swagatam said…
Hello, R1 is 1/4 watt rated..it's not recommended to adjust its value because lowering it can damage the transistor.
Stévanovitch said…
Hello sir,
I read all comments , and in several post, some ask you if it is possible to increase output current .
Your answer was NO ! , just because of non isolated circuit design. (Very dangerous)
Now, my search is about 5V - 250mA output, but also i don't need to be isolated. ( full non touch possible , sorry i don't know how translate)
I look lnk306, viper22a , etc , but not really cheap, and hard to get full work well.
So can you help me , or drive me to a way to get what i wish.
Thanks
Best regards.
Swagatam said…
Hello Stévanovitch

you can try the following design

https://homemade-circuits.com/2016/07/scr-shunt-for-protecting-capacitive-led.html
Farooq Bashir said…
Sir i need 24 volt dc 4 amp. transformerless power supply circuit. my email is narmeenfarooq@gmail.com Sir PLZ quickly.
Swagatam said…
Farooq, you will need to make an SMPS circuit, capacitive version may not be recommended for such high current applications.
Riyan Widiyanto said…
Sir, i knew i'll get electric shock if i touch this circuit. Would you like to suggest me how to make this circuit with transformer? Thanks
Swagatam said…
Riyan, you can try the following circuit

https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/05/cheapest-smps-circuit-using-mje13005.html
Kabiru Ali said…
sir, I have AC 220/24 50Hz DC 12v ×2 500mA transformer. Pls is there anyway to make that 500mA to be 5Amp
Swag said…
Kabiru, getting 5amp from 500mA source is just not possible...
Sidingilizwe said…
Hi Swag
I have a question on the circuit diagram, if we measure between collector and ground we should get rectified mains, not so? The zener diode only affects the base of T1. If that is correct wouldn't we expect mains voltage at the output once the base is forward biased?
Swag said…
Hi Sidingilizwe, the collector ground voltage will be apulsating DC at around 300V if the filter capacitor is good.

The zener diode forces the transistor to allow only around 24V DC at its emitter side which is turned into pure DC due to the presence of C4.
kaluya said…
please prince of electronics Swag, I request you to design me a transformerless power supply 12v dc , 5amps
Swag said…
Kaluya, that may be difficult, and is not recommended
Rajib Paul said…
How to Increase the Amps from 5v transformer less power supply
Swag said…
It is not recommended!
youngking said…
sir can this circuit be using to set your twin/split charger if not what are the modification. i'm waiting for ur response thanks
Swag said…
Sorry this circuit cannot be used for charging batteries.
youngking said…
Good day sir ,I want to construct 1000watts inverter transformer the out put is the primary 220v and the input is 12v which is the secondary side. I want u to check if my calculations are correct
1000/12= 84amps
Secondary current 84
Secondary volt =12-0-12 equal to 24volt
Primary volt= 220v output
Output frequency=50hz
Finding the core area- 1.152*√24* 84=387
Calculating turns per volt= 1/(4.44*〖10〗^(-4)**387*1.3*50)=8.92
8.92 is my turns per volts
Number of turns for primary-- 8.92*220= 1962.4
Number of turns for secondary – 8.92*24=214.08
Pls sir I will appreciate if you clear me on this.
Thanks GOD bless you
Swag said…
Youngking,

If you have put the formulas correctly then it should be correct, I don't remember the formulas so it would be difficult for me to confirm the results.
youngking said…
good day sir, sir what i mean is concerning your twin/split charger that has change over which require variable power supply circuit to set the low battery cut off and fully charge cut off. now my question is as follows
1.can i use this transformerless variable power supply circuit to set this charger.
2.what component can i use to monitor this circuit when varing from 0-24v.
pls i'm waiting for your response
thanks
Swag said…
Youngking, do you mean to say you only want to power the IC circuit with the transformerless power supply and charge the battery from an external source through the relays?? I am not sure what you are trying to suggest? please clarify elaborately
youngking said…
sir, what i'm intended doing is to use this circuit to set low battery cut and full charger cut off for one of your charger I'm yet to build . I hope is clear now, but you have not responded concerning the video I sent to your mail. God bless u for your response so far
Swag said…
Youngking, Please do not use the above circuit, instead try the last circuit from this article:

https://www.homemade-circuits.com/1-watt-led-emergency-lamp-circuit-using/

ignore the 8550 transistor, the LED, and the 1N4007 diode, and use the output which is available across the 1K resistor.

Do not use 2uF at the input instead use a 0.33uF/400V

Remember all these circuits are extremely dangerous since these are not isolated from mains input, proceed at your own risk.

Regarding designing a transformer I am sorry, I cannot suggest much, because I have no experience with practical transformer designing, whatever I have published here are all referred from other sites or magazines.
youngking said…
thank you, i will do as you said
please explain what you mean by isolated from main input ,i know i'm asking too much sir.
Swag said…
it means AC 220V will be floating across the whole circuit and may produce a lethal shock if touched in switched ON condition

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