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Simple Hobby Electronic Projects

A few of the interesting and useful hobby electronic circuit diagrams already published in this blog have been selected and compiled here for quick reference and understanding.

Making a Photo Cell using a Power transistor


This is an old trick I learned many years ago. Removing the round metal cap from a power transistor, in many cases, will reveal a photocell. Even those that don't reveal a photocell have a base-emitter region that is sensitive to light when the cover is removed.

solar cell from 2N3055 transistor


As shown in the photo, the metal cap has been removed and the photocell is located acroos the base-emitter pins. This particular power transistor read 1250 ohms in darkness and 600 ohms under a light bulb. I removed the cap on a 2N456A and it does not show a photocell inside.

In darknesss, it reads 300 ohms. Under a light bulb, it reads 25 ohms. Removing the cover can be difficult. The best way is to use a dremel tool with a metal cutting disc. A small hack saw could also be used. A last resort would be to take a small pair of sharp edge diagonal cutting pliers and pinch the metal at the round edges until the metal is penetrated.

Grab as much metal as possible and twist the pliers and metal upwards to expose the inside. Be careful not to damage the base-emmitter region. The amount of resistance change,is going to vary with different types of power transistors.

Making small emergency capacitors


When you need a small size capacitor in an emergency, this is one method of making one. I made a 22 pf (.022nf) capacitor with pencil and paper as shown in the photo below.

You need a clean sheet of white paper, such as a typing sheet. You will also need a graphite pencil with a dull end and some scissors. As the size shown resulted in 22pf of capacitance, you will need a smaller size for smaller pf's and larger for larger pf's.

how to make a capacitor at home


Your actual capacitance values will depend upon the type of lead pencil you used and the pressure you applied to the paper sheet. Start on one side and take the side of the pencil lead, making strokes to spread the graphite across the plate area and connection tab on one side.

Take care not to puncture the thin paper. Also leave a little room at the edges, so the opposite side plate will not short

The connector tabs should only have graphite applied on it's plate side. Turn the paper over and do the same thing on the opposite side.

The connector tab on the opposite side will be on the opposite end as compared with the front plate. Use a capacitance meter to test the capicatance.

If it is a smaller value than what you needed, just add more graphite to enlarge the plate area on both sides. If your tester doesn't identify any capacitance, check with an ohmmeter for a high resistance short.

You may have penetrated the paper and shorted the plates. Once you have the value required, take the scissors and allow some space from the graphite plates so you want be cutting into the graphite. Connect pg (gator) type clips to the connector tabs and install it in your circuit. This is only a temporary fix as the environment, moisture, etc., could gradually change the value.

Simple Touch Sensitive Switch Circuit

We all know about this little versatile chip which finds its way in almost all useful electronic circuits, yes our very own IC 555. The following circuit is no exception, it's a sensitive touch switch circuit using the IC 555.

Here the IC is configured as an monostable multivibrator, in this mode the IC activates its output momentarily by producing a logic high in response to a trigger at its input pin#2.

The momentary activation time period of the output depends on the value of C1 and the setting of VR1.

When the touch switch is touched pin#2 is pulled to a lower logic potential which may be less than 1/3 of Vcc. This instantly reverts the output situation from low to high activating the connected relay driver stage.

This in turn switches ON the load attached with the relay contacts but only for the time until C1 gets fully discharged.


touch sensitive switch circuit using IC 555

Simple Triac Dimmer Circuit


The circuit of a simple triac light dimmer shown below can be used for dimming incandescent lamps directly from AC mains.

The circuit is very easy to construct and uses very few components. The pot is used for controlling the load power or the intensity of the light. The dimmer circuit can be also used for controlling ceiling fan speeds.

triac based lamp controller circuit


Simple Audio Power Amplifier Circuit


The circuit illustrated here is probably the simplest form of an audio power amplifier.

Though the circuit is very crude by its specs yetis able to amplify an audio input up to a powerful 4 watts in a 8 Ohm speaker.

The transistor used  in this amplifier is a 2N3055 is used as a switch for inducing voltages in response to the input signals into one half winding of the transformer.
The back emf generated across the winding of the transformer is effectively dumped over the speaker generating the required amplifications. The transistor needs to be mounted on a suitable heatsink.

single transistor power amplifier circuit

 Simple Water Level Alarm Circuit

Just a couple of transistors are enough for implementing a simple water level alarm circuit and used for getting a warning signal when the water level inside a tank nears the overflowing level.

The two transistors are configured as a high gain, high sensitive switch, which also is capable of generating a tone when the shown terminals get bridged through the terminals coming in contact with the water inside the tank.

The water offers just about the right resistance value across the specified points of the circuit for initiating high pitched tone or the desired warning alarm.


Simple Temperature Detector Circuit

A very simple temperature indicator circuit can be built using the circuit shown in the diagram. A generally purpose small signal transistor is used here as the sensor and another active device in the form of a1N4148 diode is used for providing a reference level to the sensing operation.

The heat source which is to be measured is place in contact with the transistor while the diode is held at a relatively constant ambient temperature level.

As per the setting of the preset P1, if the threshold is crossed by the introduced heat source, the transistor begins to conduct substantially, illuminating the LED and indicating the generation the heat beyond a particular set limit.



Parts List for the above simple transistor hobby circuit

R1 = 1K,

R2 = 2K2,

D1 = 1N4148,

P1 = 300 Ohms,

T1 = BC547

LED = RED 5mm

100 Watt Transistor Based Inverter Circuit


simple TIP35 inverter circuit


Inverters are devices which have important applications where normal electric supply is not available or difficult to obtain through conventional routes.

The simple 100 watt inverter circuit shown here can be built and used for powering many electrical appliances like, lights, soldering iron, heater, fan etc. The whole inverter circuit mainly involves transistors and therefore becomes easier to construct and implement.

Parts List

R1, R4 = 330 Ohms,

R2, R3 = 39K,

R5, R6 = 100 Ohms, 1watt,

C1, C2 = 0.47uF,

D1, D2 = 1N5402

T1, T2 = BC547,

T3, T4 = TIP127,

T5, T6 = 2N3055,

Transformer = 9-0-9V, 10Amp, 220V or 120V

 100 Watt Transistor Power Amplifier Circuit


60 watt power amplifier


This circuit of a transistor power amplifier is outstanding with its performance and is able to provide a thumping 100 watts of pure music output.

As can be seen in the diagram it utilizes mainly transistors for making the amplifier and its implementations and a handful of other inexpensive passive components like resistors and capacitors. The required input is not more than 1 V, which gets amplified 200,000 times at the output.

Please refer the article below for the parts list:

https://www.homemadecircuitsprojects.com/2012/01/hi-fi-100-watt-amplifier-using-2n3055.html

Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit



This simple emergency lamp circuit uses very components and yet is able to provide some useful service.

The shown device is able to switch ON automatically when mains power fails, illuminating all the connected LEDs.

As soon as power is restored, the LEDs shut off automatically and the connected starts charging through the built in power supply.

The emergency light circuit employs a transformerless power supply for initiating the explained automatic actions and also for trickle charging the connected battery.

Parts List for the above CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R1 = 220K,

R2 = 10K,

D1, D2, D3 = 1N4007,

Z1 = 15V 1watt, zener diode,

C2 = 100uF/25V

LEDs = white, high bright type.

 Automatic Day Night Light Switch Circuit



This simple transistor circuit can be used for monitoring the dawn and dusk conditions and for switching lights in response to the varying conditions.

Thus the day night light switch circuit can be used for switching ON the connected lights when night sets in and switch it OFF during day break. The threshold tripping point may be set by adjusting the 10K preset.

The capacitors are 100uF/25V, the transistors are ordinary BC547, and the diodes are 1N4007.

 Electronic Candle Circuit



This is a simple hobby project and exhibits all the properties of a conventional wax type candle. Here the LED is used in place of the candle flame, which illuminates as soon as the mains power fails and shuts off automatically when the power is restored.

So it also performs the function of an emergency candle. The connected battery is used for powering the candle”light and it is charged continuously when the unit is not being used and powered through the mains supply.

An interesting “puff off” feature is also included so that the “candle” light may be switched OFF whenever desired through a puff of air into the attached mic which acts as the air vibration sensor.

 Simple Emergency Flashlight Circuit




This circuit may be used as an automatic emergency lamp when there’s no power or when mains power fails during night times.

As shown in the diagram, the circuit utilizes a cheap incandescent flashlight bulb for the required illumination. As long as the input supply from the mains transformer is present the transistor remains switched OFF and so does the lamp.

However the moment the mains power fails, the transistor conducts and switches ON the battery power to the bulb, instantly illuminating it brightly.

The battery is trickle charged for so long as the mainspower remains connected to the circuit.

Parts List

R1 = 22 Ohms,

R2 = 1K,

D1 = 1N4007,

T1 = 8550,

Lamp = 3V flashlight bulb.

Transformer = 0-3V, 500 mA,

Battery = 3V, penlight 1.5 V cells (2nos. in series)

Music operated Dancing Light Circuit



This circuit may be used for transforming music into dancing light patterns.

The operation of the music lamp circuit is very simple, the music input is fed to the bases of the shown transistor array, each of them are configured to conduct at a specific voltage level in the incrementing order from the top to the bottom transistor.

Thus the uppermost transistor conducts with the input music is at the minimum volume level and the subsequent transistor starts to conduct in sequence as per the volume or the pitch of the music.

Each transistor is rigged with individual lamps which light up in response to the music levels in a “chasing” dancing light pattern.

Parts List

All the base presets are = 10K,

All the collector resistors are 470 Ohms,

All the diodes are = 1N4148,

All NPN transistors are = BC547,

The single PNP transistor is = BC557,

All the triacs are = BT136,

The input capacitor = 0.22uF/25V non polar.

 Simple Clap Switch Circuit

clap activated LED circuit


The interesting clap switch circuit shown here can be used in stairways and passages for illuminating the premise momentarily through clap sound.

The circuit is basically a sound sensor circuit with an enclosed amplifier stage. The clap sound or any similar sound is detected by the mic and converted into minute electrical pulses. These electrical pulses are suitably amplified by the subsequent transistor stage.

The Darlington stage shown at the output is the timer stage which switches in response to the above sound interaction and illuminate the connected LEDs for some period of time defined by the 220K resistor and the two39 K resistors.

After the time lapses the LEDs are switched off automatically and the clap switch circuit returns to its original state until the next clap sound is detected.

The parts list is given in the circuit diagram itself.

 A Simple ELCB Circuit




The circuit shown here can be used for detecting earth leakage conditions and for implementing the required shutting off the mains power supply.

Unlike usual configurations, here the ground to the ELCB circuit and the relay is acquired from the earthing line itself. Also since the input coil is also referenced to the common earthing ground, the entire functioning becomes compatible and accurate.

On sensing a possible current leakage at the input, the transistors come into action and switch the relays appropriately. The two relay have their individual specific roles to play.

One relay detects and switches OFF when there’s current leakage through an appliances body, while the other relay is wired up to sense the presence of a the earthing line and switches OFF the mains as soon a wrong or weak earthing line is detected.

 Parts List


R1 = 33K,

R2 = 4K7,

R3 = 10K,

R4 = 220 Ohms,

R5 = 1K,

R6 = 1M,

C1 = 0.22uF,

C2, C3, C4 = 100uF/25V

C5 = 105/400V

All diodes = 1N4007,

Relay = 12V, 400 Ohms

T1, T2 = BC547,

T3 = BC557,

L1 = output transformer as used in radio push pull amplifier stage

Simple LED Flasher




A very simple LED flasher circuit is illustrated in the diagram. The transistors and the corresponding parts are connected in the standard astable multivibrator mode, which forces the circuit to oscillate the moment power is applied.

The LEDs connected at the collector of the transistors start flashing alternately in wig wag manner.

The LEDs shown in the diagram are connected in series and parallel, so that many numbers of LEDs can be accommodated in the configuration. The pots P1 and P2 may be adjusted for getting different interesting flashing patterns with the LEDs.

Parts List

R1, R2 = 1K,

P1,P2 = 100K pots,

C1, C2 = 33uF/25V,

T1, T2 = BC547,

Resistors connected with each LED series = 470 Ohms

LEDs are 5mm type, color as per choice.

 Simple Wireless Microphone Circuit



Anything spoken into the mic of the presented circuit cab be clearly picked up and reproduced by any standard FM radio, within a range of 30 meters of distance.

The circuit is very simple and just requires the shown components to be assembled and connected with each other as depicted in the diagram.

The coil L1 for this FM transmitter circuit consists of 5 turns of 1mm super enameled copper wire, having a diameter of around 0.6 cm.

Parts List

R1 = 4K7,

R2 = 82K,

R3 = 1K,

C1 = 10pF,

C2, C3 = 27pF,

C4 = 0.001uF,

C5 = 0.22uF,

T1 = BC547

40 LED Emergency Light Circuit

60 LED Emergency Light Circuit


The shown design of a 40 LED emergency light is driven using an ordinary transistor/transformer inverter circuit.

The transistor and the respective winding of the transformer are configured as a high frequency oscillator stage.

The oscillations induce a high voltage across the winding of the transformer. The stepped-up voltage at the output is directly used to drive the LED which are all connected in series for getting the desired balance and the illumination.

Parts List

R1 = 470 Ohms,

VR1 = 47K,

C1, C2 = 1uF/25V

TR1 = 0-6V, 500mA,

Battery = 6V, 2AH,

LEDs = high bright white, 40 nos.

 Simple Transistor Latch Circuit



If you are looking for a circuit which can be used to latch the output in response to an input signal, then this circuit can be used for the intended purpose very effectively and also very cheaply.

A momentary input trigger is applied to the base of T1,which switches it for a fraction of a second depending upon the length of the applied signal.

The conduction of T1 immediately switches T2 and the connected relay. However at the very instant a feedback voltage also appears at the base of T1 via R3 from the collector of T2.

This feed back voltage instantly latches the circuit and keeps the relay activated even after the trigger from the input is removed.

Parts List

R1, R3 = 100k,

R2, R4 = 10K,

C1 = 1uF/25V

D1 = 1N4148,

T1 = BC547,

T2 = BC557

Relay = 12V, SPDT

 Simple LED Music Light Circuit



In one of the previous sections we studied a simple music light show circuit using mains operated incandescent lamps, the present design incorporate LEDs for similar intended light show generation.

As can be seen in the figure, the transistors are all wired up in sequencing array. The music signal varying with pitch and amplitude is applied at the base of the buffer amplifier PNP transistor.

The amplified music is then fed across the whole array where the respective transistor receive the inputs with incrementing pitch or the volume levels and go on switching in the corresponding manner from start to finish, producing an interesting LED light sequencing pattern.
This light exactly varies its length according to the pitch or the volume of the fed music signal.

Parts list is provided in the diagram.

 A Simple 2-Pin Automobile Indicator Lamp Flasher Circuit with Buzzer



If you want to make a flasher unit for you motorbike then this circuit is just for you. This simple turn signal flasher circuit can be easily built and installed in any two wheelers for the desired actions.

The automobile flasher circuit employs just two 2-pins instead of 3 as found in other flasher circuits. Once installed, the circuit will faithfully flash the side indicator lights whenever the intended function is switched ON.

The circuit also incorporates an optional buzzer circuit which can be also included for getting a beeping sound in response to the flashing of the lamps.

Parts List

R1, R2, R3 = 10K

R4= 33K

T1 = D1351,

T2 = BC547,

T3 = BC557,

C1, C2 = 33uF.25V

L1 = Buzzer Coil

Simple Relay Motorbike Flasher Circuit

single relay based bike flasher circuit


In the above section we discussed a simple three transistor based flasher circuit; here we study another similar design, however here we incorporate a relay for the switching actions of the lamps.

The circuit looks pretty straightforward and employs hardly anything substantial and yet performs the expected functions wonderfully well.

Just build it and wire it in your mo-bike for witnessing the intended functions...

 Parts List


R1 = 1K,

R2 = 4K7,

T1 = BC557,

C1 = 100uF/25V,

C2 = 1000uF/25V

Relay = 12V, 400 Ohms

D1 = 1N4007

 Simple Door Bell Timer, with Adjustable Timing Facility


Yes this simple transistor circuit can be used as a home doorbell and it’s ON time can be set as preferred by the user, meaning if you wanted that the sound of the bell to remain switched ON for a particular period of time, you could easily do it just by adjusting the given pot.

The actual tune is derived from the IC UM66 and the associated components, while all the included transistors along with the relay are configured for producing the time delay for keeping the music switched ON.

Parts List

R1, R2, R4, R5 = 1K

VR1 = 100K,

D1, D2 = 1N4007,

C1, C2 = 100uF/25

T1, T3 = BC547,

T2 = BC557

Z1 = 3V/400mW

Transformer = 0-12V/500mA,

S1 = Bell Push

IC = UM66

Timer Circuit with Independent On and OFF Delay Adjust Facility

Timer Circuit with Independent On and OFF Delay Adjust Facility


The circuit can be used for generating delays at a desired rate. The On time of the relay can be controlled by adjusting the Pot VR1 while the pot VR2 may be used to decide after how long the relay responds once theinput trigger is fed by the switch S1.

The parts list is enclosed inside the diagram.

 Simple High and Low Mains Voltage Cut Off Circuit




Are you having problems with your input Mains supply? That’s common problem associated with our input mains AC line, where a high and a low voltage conditions are quite frequently encountered by us.

The simple high low voltage controller circuit shown here can be built and installed in you house electrical board for getting a 24/7 safety from the possible dangerous AC voltage conditions.

The circuit keeps the relay and the wired appliances as long as the mains input stays within a safe tolerable level and switches the load OFF the moment a dangerous or unfavorable voltage condition is sensed by the circuit.

Parts List

R1, R2 = 1K,

P1, P2 = 10K Preset,

T1, T2 = BC547B,

C1 = 100uF/25V,

D1 = 1N4007

RL1 = 12V, SPDT,

TR1 = 0-12V, 500mA

 0 – 40 V, 0 – 4 Amp Continuously Variable Power Supply Circuit




This unique work bench circuit utilizes only a few inexpensive transistors and yet delivers some truly useful features.

The feature includes continuously variable voltage from zero to the maximum transformer voltage and current variable from zero to the maximum applied input level.

The output of this power supply is also over load protected. The pot P1 is used for setting the maximum current while the pot P2 is used for varying the output voltage level up to the desired levels.

Parts List

R1 = 1K2,

R2 = 100 Ohms,

R3 = 470 Ohms,

R4 = Evaluate using Ohms law.

R5 = 1K8,

R6 = 4k7,

R7 = 68 Ohms,

R8 = 1k8,

T1 = 2N3055,

T2, T3 = BC 547B,

D1 = 1N4007,

D2, D3, D4, D5 = 1N5408,

C1, C2 = 2200uF/50V,

Tr1 = 0 – 35 Volts, 3 Amp

 Simple Crystal Tester Circuit




When it comes to frequency generating circuits or rather precise oscillator circuits, crystals become a crucial part, especially because they play an important role for generating and maintaining accurate frequency rates of the particular circuit.
However these devices are prone to many defects and are normally difficult to check through conventional DMM units.

The shown circuit can be used for checking all types of crystals instantly. The circuit itself is a small transistor oscillator circuit which starts oscillating when a good crystal is introduced across the indicated points in the circuit. If the crystal is a good one, the bulb lights up showing the relevant results and if there’s any defect in the attached crystal, the bulb remains switched OFF.

Simple Current Limiter Circuit Using two transistors


current limiter using PNP transistors


In many critical applications, circuits are required to maintain a strict controlled magnitude of current through them of at their outputs.

The proposed circuit is exactly meant for carrying out the discussed function.

The lower transistor is the main output transistor which operates the output vulnerable load and by itself is unable to control the current through it.

The introduction of the upper transistor makes it sure that the base of the lower transistor is allowed to conduct as long as the current output is within the specified limits.

In case the current tends to cross the limits, the upper transistor conducts and switches OFF the lower transistor inhibiting any further passage of the exceeded current limit.

The threshold current may be fixed by R which is calculated with the shown formula.

Well, I am sure there can be countless number of hobby electronic circuits that can be included here, however for the moment I could gather only these many, if you think I might have missed a few you may simply feel free to update the same through your valuable comments....

Need Help? Please leave a comment, I'll get back soon with a reply!




Comments

  1. Yah i w8 your refly because need for my project what the value of R7and R8 in the 100watt transistor base inverter circuit

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi what is the value of R7 andR8 in 100 watt transistor base inverter circuit

    ReplyDelete
  3. What volts of capacitor in the transistor inverter

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi mr. / swagatam what is the volt of 0.47uf in the circuit 100 watt inverter

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi good ev sir swagatam what volt of capacitor 0.47uf in 100 watt transistor base inverter

    ReplyDelete
  6. Sir what polarity in R5and R6 negative or positve

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  7. R5 R6 are resistors and resistors don't have polarities.

    ReplyDelete
  8. I mean sir in 100 watt transistor base inverter
    what polaritie of 0.47uf cap. They can top to R5 and R6 . Positive/ negtive.?

    2nd quiz.
    What type of transistor T4 ,T5 PNP or NPN they can buy.,if sold out to the market transistor # TIP 127 what transistor they.?

    ReplyDelete
  9. Please refer to this post, you will get a better picture of the design:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/07/simplest-and-best-100-watt-inverter.html

    0.47 is a non polar cap.

    use BD680 in place of tip1237, they a PNP transistors.

    ReplyDelete
  10. ,.good evening,sir! i just want to ask for help. i'm needing for a simple circuit that uses a sensor, which we can use in everyday living, yet the materials are affordable. hope you will respond! thanks in advance! :)

    ReplyDelete
  11. what kind of sensor are you looking for? Please provide more details about it.

    ReplyDelete
  12. ,.any sensor will do,sir! ahm, is there any "plastic materials sensor" sir? i just thought of a circuit which can separate wastes (biodegradable from non-biodegradable)... is this possible? can you help me create a circuit like this? thankyou soooo much,sir! good day! :)

    ReplyDelete
  13. I am sorry, Such a circuit would be difficult to design at my level, because there's no sensing element available in the market specified for distinguishing biodegradable from non-biodegradable

    ReplyDelete
  14. you are welcome Zenilyn, keep posting.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Remove D3, D4 and connect the battery directly to the shown position, no changes would be required.

    ReplyDelete
  16. hi I am Shadab , I think you remembered me.
    I have got a science congress in my school so, I was searching for non polluting batteries just like air battery, earth battery etc.
    Do you have any other type of battery or do you have any capacitor related project or circuit as battery.
    please please..........


    thankx

    ReplyDelete
  17. I am sorry, presently I do not have any info regarding such batteries.

    ReplyDelete
  18. It's not just about relay, it's much more complex, you can refer to this post:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/09/make-remote-controlled-toy-car-circuit.html

    ReplyDelete
  19. value of R2 missing in 40 LED EMERGENCY Light

    ReplyDelete
  20. can i have working of emergency lamp ckt

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  21. can i ve working of emergency lamp ckt ?

    ReplyDelete
  22. Sir, what will be the wattage of resistor for 5 A maximum load current in the current control circuit ???? Will this circuit be able to handle such high load???

    ReplyDelete
  23. Sir for the 'SIMPLE CURRENT LIMITER CIRCUIT USING 2 TRANSISTORS' which you had posted here. I want a quick reply sir

    ReplyDelete
  24. You can refer to this post and calculate yourself as per the given formulas at the end of the page:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/make-hundred-watt-led-floodlight.html

    ReplyDelete
  25. good day sir!

    I have a question for you.

    1. Is the transformer 's secondary a 6-0-6v or a 3-0-3v

    2. what is value of R1

    ReplyDelete
  26. pls show me the link, because there are two emergency circuits in the above article.

    ReplyDelete
  27. how about in "Simple Audio Power Amplifier Circuit"?

    1. what is the transformer, 12-0-12v or 6-0-6v?

    2.in 100E 5WATTS, what does "E" stands for?

    3. Can I use a speaker with
    impedance: 4 ohms
    rated input: 1.6 watts?

    by the way thanks for all the answer you gave me!!!!!!!your the man!!!!!!!!!!!! :-)

    ReplyDelete
  28. 1. transformer V rating should be be equal to the supply voltage
    2. E stands for Ohms
    3. yes it can be used.

    You are most welcome Achilles

    ReplyDelete
  29. you mean if the power source is 12v then the transformer is 12-0-12v, and if the power supply is 6v then the XMER is 6-0-6v?

    ReplyDelete
  30. In :40 LED Emergency Light Circuit
    1. Can I use 12v/7.5mAH battery?
    2. And if possible, what modifications will I make?
    3. How many LEDS will I use?

    ReplyDelete
  31. the circuit is not very efficient so will not work with mAH batts.....use the following circuit, it's highly efficient:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/09/led-emergency-light-circuit-using-boost.html

    ReplyDelete
  32. in:Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit
    1. Can I use 12v battery?
    2. Can I use 1 watt LED? What resistor value will I use?

    Thanks in advanced sir!!! thanks for your answer!!!

    ReplyDelete
  33. yes 12v can be used, for 1 watt led use a 33 ohm 2 watt resistor in place of D3/D4

    ReplyDelete
  34. Hi Swagatam

    I want to use the current limiting circuit with a car battery, to provide fixed 5A to a load which can draw more current. Are the following values okay?

    Q1 = TIP32C
    Q2 = TIP127
    Base resistor = 1k
    Current resistor = 0.14 (wattage ?)



    ReplyDelete
  35. Hi Abu-Hafss,

    Please refer to this article, it has got all the details :

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/make-hundred-watt-led-floodlight.html

    By the way you can simply use a LM338 IC, it's internally set to produce maximum 5amps and will never exceed this limit.

    ReplyDelete
  36. In Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit, What is the value of T1 transistor?

    ReplyDelete
  37. In Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit, What is the value of C1 capacitor?

    ReplyDelete
  38. In Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit, what is the value of D4 diode?

    ReplyDelete
  39. 2N2907, 8550, BD140 all these will work

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hi How do I make an electronic timer cut off? eg: switch off the circuit after 3 minutes.

    ReplyDelete
  41. look for 4060 simple timer circuit.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Hi swagatham,

    Its me Nithin from kerala , iam planning to build a simple circuit for my water tank which always overflows and makes wastage of water, i need a circuit which can trip the pump circuit main after the water level attains.so please help me to do this task by guiding me.also please provide a power supply circuit also.thanking u

    ReplyDelete
  43. Hi Nithin,

    You can try the following circuit:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-water-level.html

    The power can fed from any 12V/1amp ac/dc adapter.

    ReplyDelete
  44. sir please im just asking do have a smoke or fire alarm? please if you have designed refer me the link thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  45. biannz, you can refer to this circuit:

    www.brighthubengineering.com/diy-electronics-devices/113566-make-a-simple-ic-741-smoke-detector-circuit-schematic-diagram-enclosed/

    ReplyDelete
  46. hii swagatam, i want ask about emergency lamp using Led, when we use a battery 6v 4.5ah as battery, zener 12v needed change / lower it ?? would it damage battery 6v ???

    ReplyDelete
  47. Hi hui,

    it should a little higher than the battery voltage.....so a 9V zener will be just fine.

    ReplyDelete
  48. Dear bro i'm extreemly in need of a programable humidity controller circuit,, can u pls help me... my e-mail is - myfnf1@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  49. Dear Bro,

    please provide an elaborate description of your requirement, I'll try to help.

    ReplyDelete
  50. dear sir kindly publish some simple and useful circuits for ece department with components?????

    ReplyDelete
  51. mallikaraja, I'll surely include them in my blog, thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  52. Hi Swagatam

    Can you please suggest me a sample-and-hold circuit for at least 10 seconds or more?

    ReplyDelete
  53. Hi Abu-Hafss,

    I haven't studied the concept much so I am not sure whether my suggestion is correct, you can refer to the second circuit given in the following link, looks applicable to me:

    easy-electronic-circuits.blogspot.in/2012/04/track-and-hold-circuits-explained.html

    ReplyDelete
  54. Hey Sir!
    We have this project at school and there should be a triac in it. I found your music operated dancing light circuit to be interesting. Uhm does it really work sir? Also can I change the lamps into LEDs, without getting rid of the triacs? Lastly, what is the wattage of the resistors?
    Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  55. Hi Carmichael, yes it will work if built correctly as per the diagram...make sure to connect a 1k resistor in series with the music input capacitor at the PNP base.

    The circuit is not isolated from mains so is highly dangerous to touch in switched ON position.

    all resistors are 1/4 watt rated

    LEDs can be used but using LEDs will make the purpose of the triacs useless

    ReplyDelete
  56. Hello Sir, I would like to know how I can adapt the simple current limiting circuit using two transistors for my application. I would like to connect this circuit between my main power supply and load. My main power supply is 115Vac to 230Vac. My load is 115Vac to 230Vac at 10watts. I want this circuit to disconnect the load if the load exceeds 10watts and reconnect if the load is 10watts or bellow. Please assist me with components specifications as well as what changes will I need to make if I want to change the value at which the disconnection takes place. Kind regards.

    ReplyDelete
  57. Hello Heeran,

    You can try the concept explained in the following article:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/make-hundred-watt-led-floodlight.html

    Use MJE13005 for both the transistors and calculate the values of the resistors appropriately as per the given formulas.

    ReplyDelete
  58. DEAR SIR

    MY NAME AZIZ JAMALI FROM KARACHI PAKISTAN , I NEED 4 TO 20 MA CIRCUIT KINDLY HELP ME
    THANKS

    ReplyDelete
  59. Hello sir,
    myself rajesh, plz could i know the parts list of electronic candle circuit

    thnks in advance....

    ReplyDelete
  60. Hello Rajesh,

    it's given in the following article:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/make-electronic-candle-at-home.html

    ReplyDelete
  61. Hi Swagatam,

    Iam from Indonesia.....
    I Need Schematics For Incubator Timer with Hight Torque Motor ( DC Motor Power Window in Car).
    I am trying to get a DC motor to run in two direction until it reaches the end position then stop and switch polarity so it will run the other direction when power is reapplied.
    Then do the same thing at the other end.

    1. timer turns power on for 1min. (7:00am -7:01am)
    2. motor runs in one direction until it hits stop position, say 30sec.
    3. power to motor turns off when it hits stop position and delays for the 1min. timer to end/turn off main power. also reverses polarity so that.
    4. next time the main timer comes on (10:00-10:01) it dose the same thing in reverse direction and repeating continuosly
    5. 12 VDC Motor Reverse (Just two cable from motor + and -)
    6. Need Led Indicator for Rev/Fwd motor

    Can you Help me Sir and Please E-mail Schematics to : jakarta_anwar@yahoo.com

    Thank you in advance for any help. This is an important home project that needs to be 100% reliable.

    ReplyDelete
  62. Hi Anwar,

    The 1 min timer is not required since the stop switch will automatically reset the timer after 30sec.....the frequency timing between 7 to 10 is important...the timer has to initiate after this period each time the motor has finished its operations.

    I'll try to post it in the blog....stay tuned.

    ReplyDelete
  63. Hi, I was wanting to attempt to construct your LED light show circuit. The image says all transistors are BC547B transistors, does this include the PNP transistor that is attached to the speaker terminals?

    I was also wondering if I could use a 3.5 audio jack instead of the speaker terminals and any ideas on how to go about doing that? I would love to exchange emails about this if you're available.

    ReplyDelete
  64. Hi, the upper input transistor is a PNP transistor, remaining all are NPN.

    3.5 jack input from headphone socket will also work....the base of the PNP will need a 100 ohm resistor in order to safeguard it from peak input currents.

    Alternatively you can also think about the following circuit which is much reliable and accurate than the above design.

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/03/how-to-make-simple-vu-meter-circuit-at.html

    My email details are given in the contact page.

    ReplyDelete
  65. Hie sir
    I have tried making timmer circuit with independant on off delay adjust fecility,its just not working,i want a2.4 v bulb with 9 v batterie to be onn for 2 sec and off for 15 to 30 sec adjustable can u plez help me.... thznx

    ReplyDelete
  66. Hi, the circuit will surely work....connect another BC547 with the lower transistor to make it a Darlington pair, this will improve the circuit response...

    how can you use a 9V battery to drive a 2.4V bulb?....both the voltage levels must match..

    ReplyDelete
  67. Good Morning Engr. Swagatam!
    I just want to ask about the:

    40 LED Emergency Light Circuit section

    Can you give me the specific rating of each parts if I have a:

    A transformer rated @ 1A; 15v-0v-15v on sec.; and 0v-110v-220v on pri.?

    And instead of 12v supply make it 5v dc?

    And the rating of the output transformer as follows: Vout > 12V
    e.g. 13v and above.

    R1=?
    VR1=?
    C1=?
    T1=?
    C2=?

    Thanks!...

    ReplyDelete
  68. Good Morning Eshkariel,

    the supply needs to be equal to the transformer winding voltage rating, otherwise the output will be much lower, what's your battery AH specs?....actually the transformer is simply not required....you can connect the LEDs directly with the battery in parallel strings.

    ReplyDelete
  69. Referring to the phrase:

    "actually the transformer is simply not required....you can connect the LEDs directly with the battery in parallel strings."



    What I have is a hand crank generator using a dc motor. It produces voltage of about 9v max and a current of 50mA max. My
    plan is to use the circuit of "40 LED Emergency Light Circuit" section which would invert the 9v dc to >12v ac and then
    rectify it to make it dc again and then regulate it using a 12v regulator and replace it in place of a 12v battery in a UPS.



    Would that work?



    I appreciate your answer a lot.



    thanks a lot!!!

    P.S.

    As soon as it works, I will connect the hand crank generator to a stirling engine to make it automatic, replacing manual human power with autmatic heat engine power.

    Next problem: How to make a high torque Stirling engine...XD...but that's out of your field of interest...so i'll take it on my own..btw...thanks again!

    ReplyDelete
  70. sorry that would never work? you should have specified this before.

    moreover as per the diagram the trafo needs to have 220V winding at the LEd side for illuminating 40 LEDs....

    ReplyDelete
  71. Hi How are you
    Sir
    Please tell me how can I make 24 volt low battery disconnect circate

    ReplyDelete
  72. Hi Kamran, you can try the second circuit from the following article for your requirement:

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2011/12/how-to-make-simple-low-battery-voltage.html

    just remove the relay and replace it with your load. the 100k feedback resistor can be replaced with a 1M resistor.

    also change the BC547 with a high current mosfet or a high power BJT as per the load specs.

    ReplyDelete
  73. ...also change the 1K with 10k resistor and the 741 opamp with a LM321

    ReplyDelete
  74. Hi.... Can u pls giv me a small application of diode with small nd simple circuit diagram?? Pls

    ReplyDelete
  75. HI I WANT TO MAKE CAR BATTERY VOLTAGE MONITOR WI LE INDICATOR FROM MINIMUM 3 VOLT UP TO 12V

    ReplyDelete
  76. Sir mene water alarm circuit banaya lekin wo kaam nahi kar raha hay

    ReplyDelete
  77. Sir mere problem solved kar dain please

    ReplyDelete
  78. sorry I cannot understand what may be the problem? you can try some circuit using IC 555

    ReplyDelete
  79. Sir i made Simple Water Level Alarm Circuit but it not works please is ki detail bata dain k is me speaker hoga ya buzzer or kitne watt ka?

    ReplyDelete
  80. Syed, speaker lagega 8 ohms ka chhota wala, please see the following article for more details:

    www.physics.mcmaster.ca/electronics/?page=project002.html&mode=print&type=

    ReplyDelete
  81. Sir kitne watt? Sir mene 8 ohms 3 watts ka speaker lagaya lekin circuit kaam nahi kia

    ReplyDelete
  82. watt value is not important any small type will work....koi bhi chhota 1 to 10 watt ke beech me chalna chahiye

    ReplyDelete
  83. please put a simple incubator circuit which is automatic in degree thanks :)

    ReplyDelete
  84. will try to update it soon....

    ReplyDelete
  85. hellow sir! I am an electrical student, here in the Philippines and i know you are helpful. Im developing a device for my thesis,please help me. my problem is schematic diagram of an AUTOMATIC MIST IRRIGATION FOR MUSHROOM PRODUCTION which the objective is when it set 25 degree celcius and its attain the temperature, the irrigation will turn it ON. we are insufficient of materials here so a low cost of materials to be use sir. Im hoping for your immediate response sir because I have only less than a month free to do that thing. thank you for your anticipation.

    ReplyDelete
  86. hello Riku, as per your specification the mist shower should be triggered ON when the ambient temperature exceeds 25 degrees, and trigger OFF when it reaches below this figure....I hope I have understood it correctly.

    Please confirm so that I can design it for you.

    ReplyDelete
  87. What is the value of the AC input supply in Simple Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit?

    ReplyDelete
  88. exactly sir but it can adjust the temperature range weather the ambient temperature or depends the temperature needed to trigger ON.thank you for helping me.

    ReplyDelete
  89. did not quite understand what you meant by

    ...but it can adjust the temperature range weather the ambient temperature or depends the temperature needed to trigger....

    ReplyDelete
  90. what am i trying to say sir is that the device can be adjustable the temperature range because it will be use in the mushroom house and furthermore the ambient of the temperature is changing depends upon the mushroom temperature needed to sustain. please reply to me in my gmail account sir. thank you

    ReplyDelete
  91. OK you can try the first circuit from this article

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2016/08/incubator-temperature-controller.html

    the pot can be adjusted for achieving the desired ranges

    ReplyDelete
  92. thank you for giving me the bright ideas sir. but there is a problem, how will i know that the temperature I set could be accurate in order to know that the device is effective.

    ReplyDelete
  93. the cut off will be very accurate, but first the full range will need to be set by applying a precisely known temperature on the sensor,

    please continue the comment under the following article for further queries

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2016/08/incubator-temperature-controller.html

    ReplyDelete
  94. Inverter circuit.
    C1, C2 = 0.47uF
    How many volts?

    ReplyDelete
  95. Few doubts in Variable Power SupplyCircuit
    Pls tell the value of R4
    And both POT values ?

    This circuit tested by u sir...
    Bcs i need to do variable power supply with amps control...

    Pls guide me sir

    ReplyDelete
  96. you can get the details here

    https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/01/how-to-make-versatile-variable-voltage.html

    R4 will depend on the maximum current limit required at the output of the power supply

    ReplyDelete
  97. yes it is a tested design, use a Darlington for T1 using 2N3055/2N2222 pair

    ReplyDelete
  98. 19v to 12v without current drop?
    i have laptop charger of 19V 3.42A(65W).i want to step down that 19v to 12v without any decrease in current.i need 12v 3.42+A
    what is the simple way?
    can i use resistors to radius voltage without current drop?
    can i use LM7812C to get 12v 3.42+A

    ReplyDelete
  99. The simplest way would be to use an LM338 based circuit as shown below

    https://www.homemade-circuits.com/how-to-make-solar-battery-charger/

    7812 will need much modifications therefore it may not be recommended.

    ReplyDelete
  100. Good day.
    I need a simple transistor circuit that short circuit, or discharge a cap, when the 12 volt power supply to a timer circuit gets turned off and when the 12 volt gets turned on to the timer circuit the simple transistor circuit must open circuit the cap again. This simple transistor circuit will act as a reset circuit for the timer when the power is switched of to the timer. https://www.homemade-circuits.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/timer-circuit.png This is a link to the timer that i am using. The transistor circuit must short circuit the cap between pins 3 and 6 of the ic when the power to the timer circuit is switched off and go open circuit when the power to the timer is switched on again. Or is there any other easy way to reset this timer when power goes off.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  101. I have designed it below, you can try it and check if it works or not:

    https://www.homemade-circuits.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/discharge.png

    ReplyDelete

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